Findings from a household randomized controlled trial of hand washing and face masks to reduce influenza transmission in Bangkok, Thailand
Between April 2008 and August 2009, 991 (16·5%) of 5995 pediatric influenza‐like illness patients tested influenza positive. Four hundred and forty‐two index children with 1147 household members were enrolled, and 221 (50·0%) were aged <6 years. Three hundred and ninety‐seven (89·8%) households reported that the index patient slept in the parents’ bedroom. The secondary attack rate was 21·5%, and 56/345 (16·3%; 95% CI 12·4–20·2%) secondary cases were asymptomatic. Hand‐washing subjects reported 4·7 washing episodes/day, compared to 4·9 times/day in the HW + FM arm and 3·9 times/day in controls (P = 0·001). The odds ratios (ORs) for secondary influenza infection were not significantly different in the HW arm (OR = 1·20; 95% CI 0·76–1·88; P‐0.442), or the HW + FM arm (OR = 1·16; 95% CI .0·74–1·82; P = 0.525).